business strategy

Marketing Objectives Affect Pricing Decisions

February 15, 2017
Article
Marketing objectives are internal factors that affect pricing decision. Before setting price, the firm must decide on its price strategy for their goods. If the company has already selected its target market and positioning attentively, then its marketing mix strategy, with price, will be comparatively straightforward. For example, when Toyota developed its Lexus brand to compete with European luxurious cars in the higher-income segment, and it required charging a high price. Thus, pricing strategy is mainly determined by decisions on market positioning. Meanwhile, the company may search further general or specific objectives. General objectives include survival, market share leadership, current profit maximization, and product quality leadership. At a more specific level, a company can set prices low to avoid competition from entering the market or set prices at their competitors’ level to stabilize the market. It can set prices to keep the support and faithfulness of resellers or to stay

Significance Of Brand Equity

January 20, 2017
Article
“The commercial value that derives from consumer perception of the brand name of a particular product or service, rather than from the product or service itself.” Actually it is the value of a brand. Brands are just the names and symbols. Brands symbolize consumers’ perceptions and feelings regarding any product and its performance – everything that the good or service means to consumers. According to the analysis, brands exist in the minds of customers. Thus, the actual value of a strong brand is its power to capture customer preference and loyalty. A strong brand has high brand equity because it effects customers’ reliability and reactions toward the particular product or service. Evaluation of a brand’s equity is the extent to which consumers are willing to pay more for their favorite brands. A study found that 72% of buyers would pay a 20% premium for their desired brand than the closest

Buyer’s Decision Process For New Products

January 17, 2017
Article
Buyers may pass quickly or slowly through different stages of buying-decision-process, and some of those stages may even be reversed. It is much depended on the nature of the buyer, the product, and the buying situation. Now we have a look at how buyers approach the a new product till its purchased. A new product can be a good, service, or an idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new. Marketer’s main interest is to know that how consumers learn about new products for the first time and make buying decisions on whether to adapt them. We can also define the adaptation process as a mental process through which an individual customer passes from the first learning about an innovation of a product to final adaptation, and adaptation as a decision by an individual to become a regular customer of the product. Stages in the Adaptation Process Buyers

International Product And Service Marketing

January 13, 2017
Article
Marketers of international goods and services face unusual challenges. First, marketers must figure out what goods and services to introduce and in which countries. After that, they must make a decision about how much to standardize or adapt their goods and services for the world market. On the other hand, companies would like to be consistent in their offerings. Consistency helps a company to develop a constant worldwide image. It also cuts down the manufacturing costs and eliminates replication of advertising, research and development, and product designing efforts. Furthermore, worldwide the consumers are different in their attitudes, behaviors, cultures and buying patterns. And markets also vary in their economic conditions, legal requirements, competition, and physical environments. Companies must usually react to these differences by adjusting their products’ offerings. Packaging also faces new challenges for international marketers. Packaging issues can be delicate; brand’s name, colors, and label may not translate easily

Significance Of Branding And How It Plays Its Role In A Company’s Success

January 11, 2017
Article
Brand is a name, sign, term, and symbol, or design, or a combination of these that identifies the maker or seller of a product or services. Brand is an essential part of a product for consumers, and branding can add value to a product. For example, mostly consumers would perceive a bottle of White Linen perfume as a high-quality brand and an expensive product. But the same perfume in an unmarked bottle would likely be viewed as lower in quality, even the fragrances of these perfumes were identical. Now branding has become so strong that today hardly things go unbranded. Salt is in branded bottle, common nuts and bolts are packaged with the label of different distributors, and automobile parts like spark, tires, plugs, filters – bear brand names that differ from those of the automakers. Even vegetables, fruits, and poultry are branded now; Dole pineapples, Sunkist oranges, Fresh Express

Pricing Strategy For New Products

January 6, 2017
Article
Pricing strategies usually modify as a product passes in its product life cycle. The introductory stage of any product is especially challenging. Companies bringing out with a new product, face the challenge of setting price in the beginning. They can choose between two broad strategies. One is market-skimming pricing and the other one is market-penetration pricing. These two strategies play very important in fixing price of new product. It is very crucial thing to fix right price which can be affordable for consumer and beneficial for marketers. Market-Skimming Pricing Market-skimming pricing is fixing a high price for a new commodity to skim maximum returns layer by layer from the segments ready to pay the high price; the firm makes fewer but more profitable sales. Several businesses that invent new products set initially high prices to skim revenues. Sony frequently uses market-skimming strategy. In 1990, when Sony introduces the world’s first

Impact Of Marketing Communications Mix

January 3, 2017
Article
A business’s total marketing communications mix includes the specific mix of personal selling, advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and direct-marketing tolls that the firm uses to pursue its marketing and advertising objectives. Marketing communications mix is also called promotion mix. The details of these five promotion mix tools are given below: Personal Selling Personal selling is the presentation by the sales force of the company for the reason of generating sales and building strong customer relationship. Advertising Advertising is a paid form of non-personal promotion and presentation of thoughts, products, or services by an identified sponsor. Public Relations Building excellent relations with the company’s different public by obtaining positive publicity, building up a superior co-operate image, and heading off or handling unfavorable stories, rumors, and events. Sales Promotion Sales promotions are short term incentives to promote the purchase and sales of a good and service. Direct Marketing Direct marketing is

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

December 31, 2016
Article
The most important issue for companies is how best to analyze and use individual customer data. Most companies are flooded with information about their customers. In fact, smart companies collect information at each possible consumer touch point. These touch points consist of customer purchase, sales, services and support calls, website visits, customers’ satisfaction survey, payment interactions, market research studies- every contact between the customer and the company. The dilemma is that information is usually scattered widely across the organization. It is hidden in the separate records and databases of different departments of company. Now many companies are turning to CRM (customer relationship management) to resolve these kinds of problems, to manage detailed information regarding individual customers and to maintain customers touch points very carefully in order to maximize customer loyalty. Customer relationship management is an overall practice of building and maintaining the beneficial customer’s relationships by delivering superior customer value

Role And Impact Of Public Relations (PR) On Business

December 29, 2016
Article
PR is a major mass-promotional tool. It builds good relations with a company’s various contacts by obtaining positive publicity, building up strong co-operate image, and handling & heading off unfavorable stories, events, and rumors. Public relations department may execute any or all of the following tasks:     Press relations or press agency: It is all about creating and placing interesting information in the news media to draw attention to a person, goods, or services. Product publicity: Product publicity is for publicizing the detailed products and publicity can be positive or negative both. Public affairs: In public affairs, a company has to build and maintain local and national community relations. Lobbying: It is all about to build & maintain cooperative relations with the government officials and legislators to persuade legislation and regulation. Investor relations: To maintain excellent relationship with shareholders, investors and others in financial community who invest their money

Marketing strategy In Digital Era

December 22, 2016
Article
World has become a global village. Conducting business in the new digital era will call for a new model for marketing strategy and practice. The internet is revolutionizing how companies create value for their customers and try to build strong relationships with them. This digital age has fundamentally changed customers’ philosophy of convenience, speed, price, product knowledge, and service. Thus, today’s marketing demands introduce new thinking and action-plans. Companies need to retain most of the skills and practices that have worked in the past. But they will have to add essential new competencies and practices if they want to compete, rise, and prosper in this new digital environment. E-Business E-business involves the use of electronic platforms as intranets, extranets, and the Internet to conduct a company’s business. Almost every company has set up a website to inform about and to promote its goods and services. Others use websites simply to

Developing The Sales Promotion Program

December 21, 2016
Article
The marketers must make several other decisions in order to define the full sales promotion program. First, the marketers must decide on the size of the incentives. If the promotion is to succeed, a certain minimum incentive is necessary. A large incentive will generate more sales response. Marketers also must set conditions for participation. Incentives might be offered to everyone or only to selected groups. Then marketers must decide how to promote and distribute the promotion plan itself. A 50-cents-off coupon could be given out in a package, at a store, by mail, or in an advertisement. Each distribution process involves a different level of cost and reach. Increasingly, marketers are combination of several media into a total campaign concept. The length of the promotion is also very important. If the time period of sales promotion is too short, many prospects (who may not be buying during that time) will

Socially Responsible Target Marketing

December 20, 2016
Article
Socially responsible target marketing is to target those market segments which will be beneficial for social welfare. Smart targeting helps companies to be more effective and efficient by focusing on segments that they can satisfy best and most profitably. Targeting also provides benefits for consumers. Companies reach specific groups of consumers with various offers carefully altered to satisfy their needs. However, sometimes target marketing generates concern and controversy. The major issues usually engage the targeting of vulnerable or deprived consumers with controversial or potentially harmful goods and services. For example, over the years, a cereal industry has been criticized heavily for its marketing attempts directed towards kids. Critics concern that premium offers on products and high-powered advertising appeals presented and the presence of kids’ favorite and lovable animated characters will overwhelm their defenses. The marketers of toys and other children’s stuffs have been similarly shabby, often with good justification. Other

Consumer Behavior Across International Border

December 17, 2016
Article
The subject of whether to adapt or standardize the marketing mix across international markets has shaped a lively debate in recent years. Understanding consumer behavior is difficult enough for companies marketing within the boarder of a single country. For companies operating in many countries, however, understanding and serving the needs of consumers can be intimidating. Although, consumers in different countries may have something in common, their attitudes, values, and behaviors often vary greatly. International marketers must understand such differences and amend their products and marketing plans accordingly. Sometimes differences are very obvious in them, for example, in the United States of America, where most people eat cereals regularly in their breakfast. Kellogg focuses on persuading consumers to select Kellogg brand rather than a competitor’s brand in its marketing plan. In France, however, where most people prefer croissants and coffee or no breakfast at all. Kellogg simply tries to convince people

Major Influences On Business Buyers

December 16, 2016
Article
Business buyers are subject to many influences when they make their buying decisions. Economy is one of the major influences in some marketers’ perception. They think buyers will favor the supplier who offers the lowest price rate or the best product or the most service. They focus on offering strong economic benefits to buyers. However, business buyers actually respond to both economic and personal factors. Today, most B-to-B marketers recognize that emotions play a vital role in business buying decisions. For example, you might expect that an advertisement promoting large trucks to corporate fleet buyers would stress objective performance, technical, and economic factors. Though, an ad for Volvo heavy-duty trucks shows two drivers arm-wrestling and claims, “it solves all your fleet problems, except who gets to drive.” There are many factors which actually influence on business buyers: Environmental Factors Business buyers are influenced heavily by factors in the current and

An Introduction To Micromarketing

December 14, 2016
Article
Micromarketing is based on individualized marketing. Although, differentiated and concentrated marketers alter their products, offers, and marketing plan to meet the needs of different market segments and niches. At the same moment though, marketers do not customize their offers to each individual customer. Micromarketing is a practice of altering products and marketing plans to suit the choices of specific individuals and locations. Micromarketers see individual in every customer rather than seeing customer in every individual. Micromarketing consists of local marketing and individual marketing. Local Marketing Local marketing involves altering brands and promotions according to the needs and wants of local customer groups, like neighborhoods, cities and specific stores. For example, Citibank provides various mixes of banking services in all of its branches, depending on neighborhood demographics. Kraft helps many supermarkets chains to identify the specific cheese variety and shelf positioning that will help to optimize cheese sales in low-income, middle-income

The Buyer’s Decision Process

December 13, 2016
Article
There are some influences that affect buyers and their decisions for buying products. This buying process starts long before actual purchases and continues long after. So marketers need to focus on the complete buying process instead of purchase decision only. Buyer decision process consists of five stages: Need Recognition This is the first stage of the process, in which the consumer recognizes a need or problem. Need is generated by internal stimuli when one person’s normal need rises to high level to become drive. A need can also be generated by external stimuli. For example, a discussion with your friend or an advertisement might get you thinking about purchasing a new car. Information Search At this stage, consumer starts to search more information about the product which he is interested to buy. If consumer’s drive is strong and he can satisfy his needs, he will buy. Otherwise he keeps it

Requirements For Market Segmentation

December 13, 2016
Article
Market consists of buyers, and the buyers are different to each other in one or more ways. They may vary in their needs, locations, resources, buying practices and buying attitude. Market segmentation is to divide a market into smaller groups of buyers according to their different needs, behaviors or characteristics. Through market segmentation, companies divide large and heterogeneous markets into small segments. With these smaller segmentations, products and services can be reached more efficiently and effectively to the target market. There are many ways to segment the market but all ways are not effective. For example, consumers of table salt could be divided into blonde and dark hair customers. But, hair color does not influence the purchase of table salt. Effective market segments must have some requirements to make the segmentation more efficient. These are: Measurable Segments should be easily measurable after targeting. The size, profiles and purchasing power of

The Impact Of Culture On Marketing Strategy

December 8, 2016
Article
Every country has its own norms, taboos and folkways. Companies must understand all these things when they design global marketing strategies that how culture affects consumers’ buying and reactions in different countries of same product. In fact, they must also understand how these marketing strategies influence on local cultures as well. Before developing a marketing plan, every seller should examine the ways that buyers in different countries use and think about certain products. There are often surprises. For example, the Germans and the French eat more branded and packaged pasta than Italians do. Italian kids like to eat chocolate bars between slices of bread like snack. Women in Tanzania do not their kids eggs for fear of bald. Companies that pay no heed to such differences can make really some costly and embarrassing mistakes. Business behaviors and norms also vary country to country. All business executives need to be briefed

The Impact Of ERP For Accounts Management

December 5, 2016
Article
Business world is rapidly changing. Most emerging organizations are moving towards EPR (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems in order to unite their cross functional business units. ERP system improves the quality of managerial accounting process, and training. ERP Software ERP software usually consists of multiple modules of enterprise software that are purchased according to what best meets the specific and technical capabilities of the organization. Each ERP module is designed for one area of business processes and it is used to manage back-office activities and tasks. The main purpose of using an Enterprise Resource Planning system is to centralize all the information that is shared by all the departments to improve the data flow across the organization. ERP Function for Accounts ERP system is more friendly for Accounts and provide effective tools to maintain database and improve their work flow as well. ERP helps accountants to manage their financial matter such

Scrum Standup Meetings

December 2, 2016
Article
Scrum standup meeting, also known as daily standup meeting, in this meeting software development team gather to provide project status updates and details. They discuss about what is current status, what has to be done, what needs to be done and what are the issues in the completion of task. Theoretically, these scrum standup meetings are supposed to improve team communication and deliver a best product. Scrum standup meeting having a short time period about 15 to 30 minutes. Because the basic purpose is to communicate with project team and keep in touch with the team to make work more effective and efficient. The basic need is that to understand team work and scrum qualities. Mostly scrum meetings get off to the topic and it takes an hour. So now it is time to move on the actual scrum meeting process. Scrum standup meetings are followed by a proper procedure.

6 Tips to Improve Sales Negotiation Process

November 29, 2016
Article
“In business as a life, you don’t get what you deserve. You get what you negotiate”                                                                                     – (Chester L.) Negotiations play a vital role in the expansion of your business. No matter what is the size of a business, they have to get involve in process of negotiations at some part of their business dealings. Look from an organization’s point of view; bargaining and negotiating with suppliers, dealers, customers, and carrier services etc. is a common task. Skilled negotiating human resource can prove to be more than a mere asset for the corporation. Some firms lose huge opportunities only because they lack good negotiating skills. In this article,

Pricing Strategies And Factors To Be Considered While Setting The Price

November 28, 2016
Article
Marketing mix defines your business and the most basic components of a market mix comprise of Price, Product, Place, and promotion. This shows how important price is for a company. Setting the price is not an easy task at all. It involves different analysis and deep insights regarding the target market. Some of the most commonly used pricing strategies are: Premium Price When a firm knows that the product they are offering is of superior quality and can easily outperform its substitutes, they set a price higher than their competitors. They charge higher prices as compared to their competitors, as they know they are providing a better product. This is called premium pricing. Market Penetration When a firm wants to attain more market share, the strategy they use is Market Penetration. In this strategy, the price they offer is very low and none of their competitors can offer the same

4 Ways To Enhance Your Advertisement Strategy

November 21, 2016
Article
If people do not know about your product, how can you anticipate that they will buy from you? The answer to this question is an advertisement, it plays an integral role in business. The advertisement is crucial for both existing and new firms. For new firms, it creates awareness among the public, and for the existing businesses it is used to communicate how doing business with you is a better proposition as compared to your competitors. The current business era is very competitive and designing advertisement which just tell what is your product is not sufficient enough. Advertisements are becoming way more innovative as compared to the past, so creating an effective advertisement is one of the biggest challenge currently business firms are facing. Today I will tell you about some of the most basic yet effective factors incorporating which can enhance our advertisement campaigns quite significantly. Embrace the Power

How To Boost Your Sales Using Marketing Triggers

November 16, 2016
Article
There are some marketing triggers which can sell your products more and make people purchase your products and services. Customers are more excited to buy products because of their emotions trigger. It should be cleared in your mind that people buy what they want not what they need. Needs are determined by reasoning and wants by emotions. Everyone has the similar mental triggers and needs that force to take action. Customers’ decision consists of various conscious and unconscious emotions. Deep understanding of human psychology and behavior is a key to the success of your business. If marketers recognize these emotional triggers, they can create more effective marketing campaigns, messages and tag line for maximizing their sales. Psychological and emotional triggers are given below to increase your sales. These are: Belonging Belongingness is a strong human desire to attach with someone or thing, like, a group, a gang, a clan, a

Role of Team Optimization in Business

November 15, 2016
Article
Optimization is a process to find out suitable alternates which are cost effective and achieve the highest reachable performance under the specified constraints by maximizing desired features and minimizing the undesired ones. Many optimization plans observe their first success as small talented teams doing it well. It is the best approach to start the journey of optimization. In the long run, whether teams are small or large, they come to the point where they lack resources to run the complicated campaigns and experiments of the growing organization. Every team is different and can be faced different kind of gaps but often the problem is related to technical blockage. If your team is facing this kind of problems,it’s time to think about the future of your business plans and the structure of your team. To keep arising, your plans must be accurate in skills set. The best teams of optimization have